9 abr. 2008

Carta a los directores de los asilos de locos

Señores:
Las leyes, las costumbres, les conceden el derecho de medir el espíritu. Esta jurisdicción soberana y terrible, ustedes la ejercen con su entendimiento. No nos hagan reír. La credulidad de los pueblos civilizados, de los especialistas, de los gobernantes, reviste a la psiquiatría de inexplicables luces sobrenaturales. La profesión que ustedes ejercen está juzgada de antemano. No pensamos discutir aquí el valor de esa ciencia, ni la dudosa realidad de las enfermedades mentales. Pero por cada cien pretendidas patogenias, donde se desencadena la confusión de la materia y del espíritu, por cada cien clasificaciones donde las más vagas son también las únicas utilizables, ¿cuántas nobles tentativas se han hecho para acercarse al mundo cerebral en el que viven todos aquellos que ustedes han encerrado? ¿Cuántos de ustedes, por ejemplo, consideran que el sueño del demente precoz o las imágenes que lo acosan, son algo más que una ensalada de palabras?
No nos sorprende ver hasta qué punto ustedes están por debajo de una tarea para la que sólo hay muy pocos predestinados. Pero nos rebelamos contra el derecho concedido a ciertos hombres - incapacitados o no - de dar por terminadas sus investigaciones en el campo del espíritu con un veredicto de encarcelamiento perpetuo.
¡Y qué encarcelamiento! Se sabe - nunca se sabrá lo suficiente - que los asilos, lejos de ser "asilos", son cárceles horrendas donde los recluidos proveen mano de obra gratuita y cómoda, y donde la brutalidad es norma. Y ustedes toleran todo esto. El hospicio de alienados, bajo el amparo de la ciencia y de la justicia, es comparable a los cuarteles, a las cárceles, a los penales.
No nos referimos aquí a las internaciones arbitrarias, para evitarles la molestia de un fácil desmentido. Afirmamos que gran parte de sus internados - completamente locos según la definición oficial - están también recluídos arbitrariamente. Y no podemos admitir que se impida el libre desenvolvimiento de un delirio, tan legitimo y lógico como cualquier otra serie de ideas y de actos humanos. La represión de las: reacciones antisociales es tan quimérica como inaceptable en principio. Todos los actos individuales son antisociales. Los locos son las víctimas individuales por excelencia de la dictadura social. Y en nombre de esa individualidad, que es patrimonio del hombre, reclamamos la libertad de esos galeotes de la sensibilidad, ya que no está dentro de las facultades de la ley el condenar a encierro a todos aquellos que piensan y obran.
Sin insistir en el carácter verdaderamente genial de las manifestaciones de ciertos locos, en la medida de nuestra aptitud para estimarlas, afirmamos la legitimidad absoluta de su concepción de la realidad y de todos los actos que de ella se derivan.
Esperamos que mañana por la mañana, a la hora de la visita médica, recuerden esto, cuando traten de conversar sin léxico con esos hombres sobre los cuales - reconózcanlo - sólo tienen la superioridad que da la fuerza.
Antonin Artaud

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